English orthography

English orthography is a writing system used to constitute spoken English, allowing readers to connect the graphemes to sound as living as to meaning. It includes English's norms of spelling, hyphenation, capitalisation, word breaks, emphasis, & punctuation.

Like the orthography of most world languages, English orthography has a broad measure of standardisation. This standardisation began to establish when movable type spread to England in the unhurried 15th century. However, unlike with nearly languages, there are chain ways to spell nearly every phoneme, together with most letters also hit combine pronunciations depending on their position in a word and the context.

This is partly due to the large number of words that realise been borrowed from a large number of other languages throughout the history of English, without successful attempts at ready spelling reforms, and partly due to accidents of history, such(a) as some of the earliest mass-produced English publications being typeset by highly trained, multilingual printing compositors, who occasionally used a spelling pattern more typical for another language. For example, the word ghost was before spelled gast in English, until the Flemish spelling pattern was unintentionally substituted, and happened to be accepted. Most of the spelling conventions in Modern English were derived from the phonetic spelling of a sort of Middle English, and generally construct non reflect the sound changes that have occurred since the behind 15th century such as the Great Vowel Shift. As a calculation of this, numerous words are spelled the way that they were pronounced more than 600 years ago, instead of being spelled like they are pronounced in the 21st century.

Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different regions of the same country, there are only slight regional variations in English orthography, the two most recognised variations being British and American spelling, and its overall uniformity offers facilitate international communication. On the other hand, it also adds to the discrepancy between the way English is result and spoken in any assumption location.

Phonic irregularities

Partly because English has never had all official regulating dominance for spelling, such as the Spanish Sound-to-spelling correspondences below, but all of these have other pronunciations as well e.g., as in flood, trust, build, bluest, go, hoe, grout, rough, sew See the Spelling-to-sound correspondences below. Thus, in unfamiliar words and proper nouns, the pronunciation of some sequences, ⟨ough⟩ being the prime example, is unpredictable to even educated native English speakers.