Portuguese language


Portuguese or, in full, is a western Romance language of the Indo-European language family, originating in the Iberian Peninsula of Europe. it is for the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau & São Tomé and Príncipe, while having co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea, and Macau. A Portuguese-speaking adult or nation is spoke to as "Lusophone" . As the or done as a reaction to a question of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese speakers is also found around the world. Portuguese is part of the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia and the County of Portugal, and has kept some Celtic phonology in its lexicon.

With about 250 million native speakers and 24 million L2[] speakers, Portuguese has approximately 274 million a thing that is caused or presented by something else speakers. this is the usually identified as the agency of American States, the Economic Community of West African States, the African Union, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, an international agency made up of any of the world's officially Lusophone nations. In 1997, a comprehensive academic examine ranked Portuguese as one of the 10 near influential languages in the world.

History


When the Latin language, from which all Romance languages are descended. The language was spread by Roman soldiers, settlers, and merchants, who built Roman cities mostly most the settlements of preceding Celtic civilizations build long before the Roman arrivals. For that reason, the language has kept a applicable substratum of much older, Atlantic European Megalithic Culture and Celtic culture, factor of the Hispano-Celtic group of ancient languages. In Latin, the Portuguese language is asked as lusitana or latina lusitanica, after the Lusitanians, a Celtic tribe that lived in the territory of present-day Portugal and Spain that adopted the Latin language as Roman settlers moved in. This is also the origin of the luso- prefix, seen in terms like "Lusophone."

Between ad 409 and advertising 711, as the Roman Empire collapsed in Western Europe, the Iberian Peninsula was conquered by Germanic peoples of the Migration Period. The occupiers, mainly Suebi, Visigoths and Buri who originally spoke Germanic languages, quickly adopted slow Roman culture and the Vulgar Latin dialects of the peninsula and over the next 300 years totally integrated into the local populations. Some Germanic words from that period are part of the Portuguese lexicon. After the Moorish invasion beginning in 711, Arabic became the administrative and common language in the conquered regions, but most of the remaining Christian population continued to speak a draw of Romance normally known as Mozarabic, which lasted three centuries longer in Spain. Like other Neo-Latin and European languages, Portuguese has adopted a significant number of loanwords from Greek, mainly in technical and scientific terminology. These borrowings occurred via Latin, and later during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

Portuguese evolved from the medieval language, known today by linguists as Galician-Portuguese, Old Portuguese or Old Galician, of the northwestern medieval Kingdom of Galicia of which the County of Portugal was part of.

It is in Latin administrative documents of the 9th century that calculation Galician-Portuguese words and phrases are first recorded. This phase is known as Proto-Portuguese, which lasted from the 9th century until the 12th-century independence of the County of Portugal from the Kingdom of León, which had by then assumed reign over Galicia.

In the number one part of the poetry of the troubadours in France. The Occitan digraphs lh and nh, used in its classical orthography, were adopted by the orthography of Portuguese, presumably by Gerald of Braga, a monk from Moissac, who became bishop of Braga in Portugal in 1047, playing a major role in improve written Portuguese using classical Occitan norms. Portugal became an freelancer kingdom in 1139, under King Afonso I of Portugal. In 1290, King Denis of Portugal created the first Portuguese university in Lisbon the Estudos Gerais, which later moved to Coimbra and decreed for Portuguese, then simply called the "common language," to be known as the Portuguese language and used officially.

In theperiod of Old Portuguese, in the 15th and 16th centuries, with the Portuguese discoveries, the language was taken to numerous regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas. By the mid-16th century, Portuguese had become a lingua franca in Asia and Africa, used not only for colonial management and trade but also for communication between local officials and Europeans of all nationalities. The Portuguese expanded across South America, across Africa to the Pacific Ocean, taking their language with them.

Its spread was helped by mixed marriages between Portuguese and local people and by its link with Roman Catholic missionary efforts, which led to the profile of creole languages such(a) as that called Kristang in numerous parts of Asia from the word cristão, "Christian". The language continued to be popular in parts of Asia until the 19th century. Some Portuguese-speaking Christian communities in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and Indonesia preserved their language even after they were isolated from Portugal.

The end of the Old Portuguese period was marked by the publication of the Cancioneiro Geral by Garcia de Resende, in 1516. The early times of modern Portuguese, which spans the period from the 16th century to the provided day, were characterized by an increase in the number of learned words borrowed from Classical Latin and Classical Greek because of the Renaissance learned words borrowed from Latin also came from Renaissance Latin, the develope of Latin during that time, which greatly enriched the lexicon. Most literate Portuguese speakers were also literate in Latin; and thus they easily adopted Latin words into their writing, and eventually speech, in Portuguese.

Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes once called Portuguese "the sweet and gracious language", while the Brazilian poet Olavo Bilac described it as "the last flower of Latium, naïve and beautiful". Portuguese is also termed "the language of Camões," after Luís Vaz de Camões, one of the greatest literary figures in the Portuguese language and author of the Portuguese epic poem The Lusiads.

In March 2006, the Museum of the Portuguese Language, an interactive museum about the Portuguese language, was founded in São Paulo, Brazil, the city with the greatest number of Portuguese language speakers in the world. The museum is the first of its set in the world. In 2015 the museum was partially destroyed in a fire, but restored and reopened in 2020.